Tools
Here be a list of tools and useful things for programming.

Integrated Development Environments (IDEs)

JetBrains IDEs

A suite of IDEs for various different languages, free educational licences are available. IDEs include

Visual Studio

Standard IDE in most environments, developed by Microsoft for multiple platforms including .NET, Visual C++ and Visual C#, Visual Basic, Azure Devops etc.

Xcode

Apple's ownIDE, (App Store) macOS only. Best for C, C++ and Objective-C.

Text Editors

Sublime Text

Sublime is cross platform and has a free trial for life. It supports loads of languages, has a built in terminal, etc.

Atom

Github's homemade editoris cross platform, Open source and has lots of support.

Visual Studio Code (VSCode)

VSCode by Microsoft “Free. Built on open source. Runs everywhere.”.

Vim

A highly configurable (normally) terminal based text editor. Open source, huge amounts of support. High skill ceiling due to the unique way the editor is navigated, but improves workflow/efficiency massively

Git

Tower

Tower is cross platform and extremely powerful while still being accessible for Git novices

GitHub Desktop

GitHub Desktop is GitHub's own cross platform GitHub client.